Ezra Pound in the World (2023)

EZRA POUND IN THE WORLD

_____________________

EZRA POUND’S ARRIVAL IN BRAZIL

by Rodolfo Jaruga

"Look at Brazilian coffee"

Canto 46

Brazil is mentioned only once in The Cantos, but in a crucial passage. Pound, in Canto 46, is concluding his economic hypothesis, developed in the first part of the poem, that banks create money out of nothing (ex nihil), without producing wealth, and that the financialization of capital is the origin and cause of the main ethical and political problems of modern Western civilization. It is at this crucial point of Pound’s work that the Brazilian Coffee Crisis of 1930 is mentioned as evidence to back up his hypothesis. Considering that he probably did not have in-depth knowledge of Brazilian politics and economy, Pound was accurately pointing out what can easily be considered the most important event in the first half of the 20th century in Brazilian history: the Coffee Crisis. Indeed, the sudden and abrupt fall in the price of coffee in 1930 had a direct impact on national politics, preparing the ground for a revolution that extinguished the First Republic and launched to power Getúlio Vargas, who would govern the country for 15 years, starting a period of populism in Latin America, very similar, ideologically, to Benito Mussolini’s Italy. Brazilian coffee was mostly produced in the Province of São Paulo, and the excedent reserves generated by the export of this commodity made the industrial development possible for the city of São Paulo, which in the 1950’s would become the cultural heart of Brazil. Concrete art was the expression of this economic flourish. And concrete poetry, the literary ramification of a wider artistic movement, sought its theoretical foundation in Ezra Pound’s poetic reflections.

I. The meaning of Noigandres

And he said: "Now is there anything I can tell you?

And I said: “I dunno sir,” or

“Yes,Doctor, what do they mean bynoigandres?”

And he said: “Noigandres!NOIgandres!

“You know for seex mon’s of my life

“Effery night when I go to bett, I say to myself:

(Video) Ezra Pound documentary

"Noigandres, eh, noigandres,

now what the DEFFIL can that mean!"

Canto 20

Ezra Pound in the World (1)

Noigandres is a Provençal word that Pound could not understand and that the philologist Emil Lévy, mentioned in Canto 20, could not explain either. Noigandres is also, and not by chance, the name of a literary magazine founded in São Paulo in 1952 by the poets Décio Pignatari (1927-2012), Haroldo de Campos (1929-2003), and Augusto de Campos (1931): it would play an important role in the development and diffusion of Brazilian concrete poetry. Noigandres, the name this group of poets became known for, was mostly responsible for the dissemination of Ezra Pound’s work in Brazil. Pound’s prose and poetry were broadly publicized by the group, since they not only elected him as their magazine’s godfather, but introduced him as one of the precursors of concrete poetry. Before the Noigandres, Pound was no more than an illustrious unknown.

In 1952, when the magazine was first issued, it was impossible to identify any stylistic connection between Brazilian pre-concrete poems and Pound’s. But as concrete poetry started to develop and several texts introducing the movement were published, Pound eventually came to be explicitly invoked as a direct precursor of concrete poetry: the ideogrammic method of composition (described in ABC of Reading) foreshadowed, according to the Noigandres Group, the end of the verse, or at least, the end of the poem built on linear and musical foundations. Pound’s great poetical achievement, they said, was to implode the rational logic of western discourse, by escaping the shackles of linear syllogism. This poetic experience had been overshadowed by World War II and deserved to be recovered and elevated to the rank of guide for the future development of poetry.

Pound’s name, however, was not the only one to justify or imbue with authority their incipient concrete poetry: the notion of spatiality in Mallarmé’s poems (and Apollinaire’s, to a lesser extent); the morphosyntactic deconstruction of Cumming’s poems; and the multi-lingual polysemy of Finnegans Wake by Joyce, completed the concrete equation. The future of poetry, declared the Noigandres, would be antidiscursive and objectively visual. In 1956, the group signed one of its first manifestoes.

the old formal bedrock and its syllogistic-discursiveness, strongly dismantled in the beginning of the century, is once again working as prop for the ruins of a damaged poetic, anachronistic hybrid of atomic heart and medieval cuirass. (…) mallarmé (un coup de dés-1897), joyce (finnegans wake), pound (cantos-ideogram), cummings and in the background, Apollinaire (calligrammes) and the futuristic/surrealistic experimental attempts, form the roots of a new poetic procedure that tends to
impose itself on the conventional organization whose formal unity is the verse (including the free one) (Teoria da Poesia Concreta 44, my translation).

The Noigandres Magazine nº 4 published, in 1957, its most famous manifesto, called Plano Piloto para a Poesia Concreta (Pilot Plan for the Concrete Poetry), here is an excerpt:

Ezra Pound in the World (2)

concrete poetry: product of a critical evolution of forms. considering the historical cycle of the verse (rhythmic-formal unity) as finished, the concrete poetry starts by taking notice of the graphic space as a structural agent. qualified space: temporal-spaced structure, instead of a temporistic-temporal simple development, instead of a temporistic-linear development. whence the importance of the concept of ideogram, from its general sense of spatial or visual syntax, to its specific sense of (fenollosa/pound) composition method based on the analogue direct juxtaposition, not logical-discursive, of elements (10).

The ideogrammic method of composition served as the theoretical foundation for concrete poetry. Texts like the ones above, advertising more than providing a critical analysis, proliferated in periodicals of all latitudes in Brazil, thus Ezra Pound became well known to the public as the author of the long poem The Cantos who deconstructed logical-discursive Western forms. In the decades of 1950 and 1960, the poems in Personae (1926) did not catch the attention of Brazilian poets, their emphasis fell entirely on The Cantos, since they were particularly interested in the method of composition of the poem–the structural elements of its language. Analysing the conception of ideogrammic method of the most theoretically active member of the group, Haroldo de Campos, Marjorie Perloff summarizes:

For Haroldo, the interest of the ideogram is not in its status as a visual sign that stands for a particular meaning; rather, the ideogram brings to our attention the "palpable side of the sign" in its "relational, parallelistic, paratactic syntax." Relationalitybecomes the key term, and the units to be related are phonemes and morphemes as well as words and phrases.
From this perspective, Concrete poetry is less a matter of spatial form and typographic device than of "ideogrammatizing" the verbal units themselves.

Actually, the link between Pound and the Noigandres Group consists of their reading of The Cantos as a poem that presents a new language. Their reading was highly influenced by the critical thinking of Hugh Kenner, especially his three chapters about the ideogram in the Poetry of Ezra Pound. The reading of this book was fundamental for the theoretical development of concrete poetry, maybe even more than Pound’s poetry itself. In the 1950’s, the theoretical reflections of the group, concerning ideogrammatic poetry, owed much to texts such as The Chinese Written Character as a Medium for Poetry by Ernest Fenollosa, and The Cinematographic Principle and the Ideogram by Sergei Eisenstein, both discussed by Hugh Kenner. The connection between Pound’s poetry and Mallarmé’s, which is the very basis of Brazilian concrete poetry, also comes from Kenner’s critique.

(Video) Jonathan Bowden, 'Ezra Pound'

The first and strongest influence Pound had on the Noigandres did not derive exactly from his poetry, but rather from the ideogrammic method of composition explained in his ABC of Reading. Concrete poems resemble little, if anything, The Cantos, either in general or a particular canto. The Cantos are immersed in the waters of history, politics and literary tradition. The concrete poems, short and straightforward, have as their privileged object language itself; they put the world in brackets, suffocating the noise of historical and civilizational conflicts.

II. Bright Brazilians, Blasting at Bastards

Ezra Pound in the World (3)


In 1953, the Noigandres Group wrote to Ezra Pound, mailing to him a copy of the first number of their magazine, initiating this way a letter exchange that would lead to Haroldo visiting Rapallo in 1959. This story has not been told yet and deserves to be the object of further and careful study, but something could be said here about the relationship between this group of young Brazilians and the old American.

At first, Pound, although gentle and sympathetic to them, seemed to care little about the poetic adventure of the Noigandres. His letters, some handwritten, are short, lacking any discussion. In one of them, Pound saluted the poets calling them "Bright Brazilians, Blasting at Bastards," and transcribed some words, almost incomprehensible, attributed by him to Camões. The Brazilians were stupefied, they could not believe the master replied to them, and they sounded in their first letters almost as groupies. However, as the conversation about publishing The Cantos in Brazil became more real, with the announcement from the Centro de Documentação do Ministério da Educação e Cultura (Center of Documentation of the Ministry of Education and Culture) saying it would be published, Pound started taking them seriously. Impressed with his publication by a governmental agency, Pound asked them about the possibility of going to Brazil to teach literature. He wrote on December 21st, 1957:

Dear Noigandres, Time has come when IF I had a clear official invitation from SOMEWHERE, say S. Paulo, to come and inhabit and lecture on, say Chinese, or any other LITERATURE, it might just possibly help get me out of quod, i. e. incarceration. If your Ministero of Education cd. express such a desire, saying they don’t regard me as political (...). If you know someone there, even if not the Lord GOD (...), cd/ write me and ask me if it wd/ be possible and if I wd/ come and on what conditions". (...) I suppose they wd/ give me some sort of shack to inhabit. Not a question of high salary, or even of salary. Anyhow, lets hear what you can do. The Min. Educ. wanting Cantos was the FIRST official governmental recognition / The UNIVERSITY of Mexico isn’t the STATE (Poesia 238).

But the Noigandres Group did not have enough influence or prestige to ensure Pound would have a proper job, so the poet ended up not coming to Brazil. Moreover, the publication of the Cantos was approved thanks to the ignorance of the editors in regard to Pound’s literature, and to the lack of their editorial judgement, not because of poetic or political conviction. In addition, Ezra Pound was being introduced in Brazil as the poet who revolutionized the form of poetry at the beginning of the century. The ideological content of his texts in prose, and even the historical/civilizational debate in The Cantos, had been completely left out by the Noigandres Group. Their answer was:

Dear Mr. Pound: Brazilian edition of "Cantares," although official, means only that in charge of Cultural Diffusion Dept. we find a man of good will and reasonable open mind, who accepted our proposal, making possible the work (he has some autonomy within his field). Of course, this does not implies (sic) that Brazilian authorities will take positive initiatives like the invitation you’ve mentioned. On the other hand, simple divulgation of your wish to come here and teach literature would certainly arise considerable interest among Brazilian writers, the young specially (YCAL 43 37/1571).

The evasive answer of the group, in a letter dating March 10th, 1958, must have frustrated old Pound, who was trying hard to escape his incarceration at St. Elizabeth Hospital. Coincidentally, from this point on their relationship would be conflicting: Pound and Haroldo de Campos started an argument about formal experimenting with poetry. Pound wrote, in a letter on January 2nd, 1959:

Ezra Pound in the World (4)

Adult readers will naturally be more interested in the writing of men who have something to say than in attempts to dress up a cliché in some fancy style that will catch attention. (...) A new content will impose a new form. The new form cannot rise without it (YCAL 43 37/1571).

The reply would come in March of 1959, in a letter that was probably the last one from the group:

Thank you very much for yr last letter. Indeed we prefer to engage ourselves in a fighting dialogue rather than ventriloquize before a living Buda. (...) We believe that a new form creates a new content. Or better: that there is a dialectical, isomorphic relation between form & content. The artisanal cycle of poetry is closed with the monumental apex of THE CANTOS. (...) A new poetry coheres with a new era and its peculiar physiognomy. Ours is progressively rational and characteristically technical one. (...) So, as we firmly believe, the greatest, permanent message of THE CANTOS’ major poetry is its own way of dealing with language, its ending in a progressive palimpsest of ideographs. (...) Admiration is a form of action, not of contemplation. You have taught our generation (the living part of it) to believe this. Faithful yours, noigandres (YCAL 43 37/1571).

Ready to confront their master, the young poets may have realized that their poetry was radically different from Pound’s. Still, the epistolary quarrel did not stop Haroldo de Campos, from visiting Pound in August, in Rapallo when traveling around Europe in April 1959. The meeting was described in a melancholic account entitled I Punti Luminosi (Poesia 243-250). In this story Haroldo does not let any friction with Pound come to light and Pound is portrayed as a wise and tired elder, fighting to gather cultural fragments of a Western civilization shattered by the Second World War. They talked about Cummings, Eliot, Mallarmé, Henry James, and Hugh Kenner. Pound would have said about The Cantos, still being written at the time: “That is the most difficult part: the Paradise. The Thrones. It is hard to find people to inhabit paradise. A paradise that is not artificial.” There is no evidence of Haroldo and Pound writing to each other after this episode.

(Video) Ezra Pound interview for BBC 1959

III. The Concrete Cantares

Ezra Pound in the World (5)In 1960, finally, the Cantares were published. The title of the book was recommended by Pound himself, “if not too late you can use the title cantares (...) cantares de gesta being nearer the real nature of the poem than cantos". The result was 17 cantares (from 1 to 7, 12, 13, 20, 30, 45, 49, 79, 80, 81, 90) in a bilingual edition, without notes, containing a short introduction written by Haroldo de Campos. The translations were all made by Haroldo and Augusto de Campos, and Décio Pignatari, together. According to them the English text follows the editions, New Directions of 1948, Faber & Faber of 1954, and All Insegna del Pesce D’oro (Milano) of 1955.

The translation is moderately good and quite literal, there is very little creative liberty. The variations of tone and linguistic registers were nullified. Translators had access to a minimal bibliography that certainly was of great help: the translation of Pisan Cantos by José Vázquez Amaral into Spanish, the Annotated Index to the Cantos of Ezra Pound, and Kenner's Poetry of Ezra Pound. They also mention that they consulted an analysis of the first 11 Cantos published in The Analyst, edited by Robert Mayo. It is known as well, that in 1956 Décio Pignatari met Eva Hesse, translator of The Cantos into German, in order to discuss the poem.

The brief introductory essay by Haroldo the Campos follows the same pattern of his texts published in the previous decade: he shows Pound as a revolutionary of the poetic form. The text reinforces what had been said about Pound and his Cantos, expanding the formalistic approach:

the goal of this introduction is the work of pound itself: pound, the inventor of forms (inventor de formas). (…) it is possible to talk about pound, creator of verbal forms, with the same simplicity as one would talk about mondrian, inventor of plastic forms, or webern, innovator of the sonorous universe. (…) pound offers us the ideogram. the ideogrammic method, as organizing principle of the cantos, is as important to contemporary poetry, as the serial principle is important to current musical structures. the ideogram puts an end to the smokescreen of syllogism: it allows us to have direct access to the object; a couple or more words, a couple or more blocks of ideas, when put together simultaneously, criticizing one another, set in motion a game of relations with such an intensity and immediacy, that a logical discourse would barely be able to evoke (Cantares 7-13, my translation).

Some of the cantos had already been published in periodicals starting in 1955, echoing concrete manifestos and creating the environment for a reception of the book that crowned a decade of activities disseminating Pound’s work in Brazil.

Ezra Pound in the World (6)Even though concrete poetry slowly lost some of its appeal over the 1960s, the literary activity of the members of Noigandres Group went on for another three decades, and Pound never ceased to be in the poetic horizon of their discourse. Haroldo de Campos, as a scholar, wrote dozens of articles quoting and discussing Pound, especially in his texts about creative translation and new forms of poetry (Transcriação, Ideograma and A Arte no Horizonte do Provável). Augusto de Campos organized a book published in Pound’s centenary year in 1985, entitled Poesia, gathering the Cantares from 1960 and the translation of numerous lesser poems by Pound, made by many poets. In this book, Augusto de Campos presented his famous translation of Hugh Selwyn Mauberley, preceded by a long introduction. José Lino Grünewald, a
late member ofthe Group,published the complete translation of the Cantos in 1986. Nonetheless, theEzra Pound in the World (7) approach of the 1950’s, focusing on the ideogrammic method of composition, remained alive in the Brazilian reception of Pound. He is still read in Brazil as a poet who revolutionizedthe form of poetry. This may be true, but is not the only relevant aspect of his work, and perhaps not even the most important. The complex historical discussion of The Cantos, its economic ideas, its political conflicts, the way it deals with the literary tradition, the history of China and the American Revolution, all of these have been completely ignored by Brazilian readers, poets and critics, so far. The rest of his work was also radically simplified, except for rare achievements such as the beautiful translation of Lustra by the poet Dirceu Villa, accompanied by notes and a robust introduction. But the overall picture shows that Pound’s reception in Brazil is still closely linked to the Noigandres approach. His work, however, can and should be discussed in new and broader perspectives.

IV. Envoi

Haroldo de Campos published in the year of 1998 the book Crisantempo, in which we find a poem about Ezra Pound, not a concrete one. We finish this article by translating it:

o poeta ezra pound desce aos infernos

não para o limbo

dos que jamais foram vivos

nem mesmo para o inferno

dos que perseveraram no erro

apesar de alguma contrição

tardia e da silente senectude

- diretamente com retitude -

o velho ez

já fantasma de si mesmo

e em tanta danação

quanto fulgor de paraíso

the poet Ezra Pound visits hell

not for the limbo

of those who were never alive

not even to the inferno

of those who insisted on failing

in spite of any late contrition

and silent senectude

-directly with rectitude-

old ez

ghost of himself now

and in so much damnation

what a bright paradise

____________

WORKS CITED

Campos, Augusto. Campos, Haroldo. Pignatari, Décio. Teoria da Poesia Concreta. São Paulo: Livraria Duas Cidades, 1975.

Campos, Augusto. Campos, Haroldo. Pignatari, Décio. “Plano Piloto para a Poesia Concreta.” Noigandres 4 (1962).

Campos, Augusto. Pound, Ezra. Poesia. São Paulo: Hucitec, 1985.

(Video) 1/4 Great Poets In Their Own Words: Making It New 1908-1955

Campos, Haroldo. Transcriação. São Paulo: Perspectiva, 2013.

—. Crisantempo. São Paulo: Perspectiva, 2004.

—. A Arte no Horizonte do Provável. São Paulo: Perspectiva, 1969.

—. Ideograma. São Paulo: Cultrix, 1977.

Edwards, John Hamilton and William W. Vasse. Annotated Index to the Cantos of Ezra Pound.Berkeley: U of California P, 1957.

Eisenstein, Sergei, “The Cinematographic Principle and the Ideogram.The Haiku Foundation Digital Library. Free online.

Beinecke Library.Ezra Pound Papers, YCAL Mss 43, box 37, folder 1571.

Fenollosa, Ernest and Ezra Pound. “The Chinese Written Character as a Medium for Poetry.” Instigations. New York: Boni & Liveright, 1920. 357-88.

Kenner, Hugh. The Poetry of Ezra Pound. London: Faber, 1951.

Perloff, Marjorie. “‘Concrete Prose’: Haroldo de Campos’ Galáxias and After.” Electronic Poetry Center. Free online.

Pound, Ezra. Poesia. São Paulo: Hucitec, 1985.

—. Cantares de Ezra Pound. Trans. Haroldo and Augusto de Campos, and Décio Pignatari. Rio de Janeiro: Serviço de Documentação-MEC, 1960.

—. Os Cantos. Trans. José Lino Grünewald. São Paulo: Nova Fronteira, 1986.

—. Lustra. Trans. Dirceu Villa. São Paulo: Demônio Negro, 2011.

(Video) Ezra Pound

FAQs

Why is Ezra Pound important? ›

Ezra Pound is generally considered the poet most responsible for defining and promoting a Modernist aesthetic in poetry.

What did Ezra Pound do during ww2? ›

The expatriate American poet Ezra Pound recorded or composed hundreds of broadcasts in support of fascism for Italian radio during World War II and the Holocaust in Italy. Based in Italy since 1924, Pound collaborated with the fascist regime of Benito Mussolini and expressed support for Adolf Hitler.

What did Ezra Pound do during ww1? ›

Pound became co-editor of Blast in 1914. He was also London editor of the Little Review and Paris correspondent for The Dial. Considered to be the motivating force behind modern poetry, he published Lustra (1916), Homage to Sextus Propertius (1919) and Hugh Selwyn Mauberley (1920).

What languages did Ezra Pound speak? ›

He left with a knowledge of Latin, Greek, French, Italian, German, Spanish, Provençal, and Anglo-Saxon, as well as of English literature and grammar. In the autumn of 1907, Pound became professor of Romance languages at Wabash Presbyterian College, Crawfordsville, Indiana.

Why is Ezra Pound called the most influential poet of the 20th century? ›

He is a major figure in 'modernist' literature - that is, experimental literature written during the first part of the twentieth century, renowned for his remarkable knowledge of poetic forms, his experiments in style, and his interest in world literatures.

Why was Ezra Pound called the most influential poet of the twentieth century? ›

Ezra Pound is often called the most influential poet of the twentieth century because... he is credited with bringing modernist movement to America. In what time period did the Modernist movement take place?

Who spent the most money in ww2? ›

The U.S.A. spent the most on the war, just over 340 billion dollars. All together, this table, which includes more than 15 countries and its allies, totals 1,301.316 billion dollars.

Who backed Germany in ww2? ›

The three principal partners in what was eventually referred to as the Axis alliance were Germany, Italy, and Japan. These countries were led by German dictator Adolf Hitler, Italian dictator Benito Mussolini, and Japanese Emperor Hirohito.

Who was really responsible for ww2? ›

Hitler's invasion of Poland in September 1939 drove Great Britain and France to declare war on Germany, marking the beginning of World War II.

Who spent the most money in ww1? ›

Among the Allies, Britain and its Empire spent $47 billion and the U.S. $27 billion (America joined after the war started) while among the Central Powers, Germany spent $45 billion.

Who was blamed for the war world 1? ›

The Treaty of Versailles, signed following World War I, contained Article 231, commonly known as the “war guilt clause,” which placed all the blame for starting the war on Germany and its allies.

Who fired the first shot in ww1? ›

Teófilo Marxuach
Years of service1905–1922
RankLieutenant Colonel
Unit"Porto Rico Regiment of Infantry" (renamed in 1919 "The 65th Infantry")
Battles/warsWorld War I *Ordered the first shot fired in World War I on behalf of the United States
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Did Ezra Pound speak Chinese? ›

Neither Pound nor Fenollosa spoke or read Chinese proficiently, and Pound was working from the posthumous notes of an American who had studied Chinese under a Japanese teacher.

Who was Ezra Pound compared to? ›

Ezra Pound was often compared to T.S Eliot because they were close friends. Ezra Pound helped T.S. Eliot in his poem, "The Waste Land." Some critics claimed that T.S. Eliot's essay, "Tradition and the Individual Talent," had many similar ideas found in Ezra Pound's works.

Did Ezra Pound win the Nobel Prize? ›

Did Ezra Pound win the Nobel Prize? - Quora. No. Ezra Pound won a Bollingen Prize for writing The Pisan Cantos. He was an American expatriate who lived in Italy.

Is Ezra Pound a good poet? ›

Ezra Pound is one of the greatest poets in American history, but he was known for his politics more than he was known for his poetry . Ezra Pound, in the words of Ash Sarkar at The Guardian, the “pioneer of the most exciting aesthetic movement of the 20th century.” And he was a great mentor to other poets.

Is the greatest poet of the 20th century in any language? ›

Fellow Nobel Prize-winner Gabriel Garcia Marquez called Pablo Neruda the, quote, greatest poet of the 20th century, in any language. Born the son of a railway worker, Neruda began writing poetry when he was 14 years old, didn't stop until his death in 1973.

Who is the best Imagist poet in your view? ›

The foremost Imagist poet who is still actively read in the twenty first century is Ezra Pound.

Why did Ezra Pound say make it new? ›

"Make it new," Ezra Pound proclaimed. In this revolution, words were set free from syntax, notes from traditional harmonies and color and line from perspective. Dramatic works became musical and music became visual, and writings became sculptural.

What themes did Ezra Pound? ›

within the work Pound explores familiar themes of culture, society, and economics. He uses Chinese characters and foreign languages. 'The River Merchant's Wife: A Letter' is an interesting composition that takes the form of a letter from a wife to a husband.

What are three characteristics of modernist writing? ›

5 Characteristics of Modernist Literature

Some of those techniques include blended imagery and themes, absurdism, nonlinear narratives, and stream of consciousness—which is a free flowing inner monologue.

Did Germany pay WW2 money? ›

World War II Germany

After World War II, according to the Potsdam conference held between July 17 and August 2, 1945, Germany was to pay the Allies US$23 billion mainly in machinery and manufacturing plants.

Has Germany paid off WW2? ›

Germany concluded a variety of treaties with Western and Eastern countries as well as the Jewish Claims Conference and the World Jewish Congress to compensate the victims of the Holocaust. Until 2005 about 63 billion euros (equivalent to approximately 87.9 billion euros in 2022) have been paid to individuals.

How much does Germany still owe for WW2? ›

Germany owes Poland over $850 billion in WW2 reparations: senior lawmaker.

Why was Germany so powerful in ww2? ›

In September 1939 the Allies, namely Great Britain, France, and Poland, were together superior in industrial resources, population, and military manpower, but the German Army, or Wehrmacht, because of its armament, training, doctrine, discipline, and fighting spirit, was the most efficient and effective fighting force ...

Was Germany blamed for WWII? ›

Most importantly, Article 231 of the treaty placed all blame for inciting the war squarely on Germany, and forced it to pay several billion in reparations to the Allied nations.

Is Germany an ally? ›

Today, Germany and the United States are close and strong allies. In the mid and late 19th century, millions of Germans migrated to farms and industrial jobs in the United States, especially in the Midwest. Later, the two nations fought each other in World War I (1917-1918) and World War II (1941-1945).

How does Germany feel about ww2? ›

As the generation that elected Adolf Hitler and fought his genocidal war dies away, most Germans today see World War II through the prism of guilt, responsibility and atonement. And almost all agree that the defeat of the Nazis was a good thing.

Does Japan teach about ww2? ›

"Students learn about the extent of the damage caused by Japan in many countries during the war as well as sufferings that the Japanese people had to experience especially in Hiroshima, Nagasaki and Okinawa in order to understand the importance of international co-operation and peace.

Has Germany paid off ww1? ›

After the Treaty of Versailles called for punishing reparations, economic collapse and another world war thwarted Germany's ability to pay.

How much did Germany pay after ww1? ›

The Treaty of Versailles didn't just blame Germany for the war—it demanded financial restitution for the whole thing, to the tune of 132 billion gold marks, or about $269 billion today.

How much did Germany actually pay after ww1? ›

The Treaty of Versailles (signed in 1919) and the 1921 London Schedule of Payments required Germany to pay 132 billion gold marks (US$33 billion [all values are contemporary, unless otherwise stated]) in reparations to cover civilian damage caused during the war.

Is Germany responsible for ww1? ›

The largest share of responsibility lies with the German government. Germany's rulers made possible a Balkan war by urging Austria-Hungary to invade Serbia, well understanding that such a conflict might escalate. Without German backing it is unlikely that Austria-Hungary would have acted so drastically.

Why was Germany only blamed for World War 1? ›

Easy; Germany crossed the wrong empires. At the outbreak of war, France and Britain were the two major superpowers of their day and Germany crossed them both. Of the major Entente powers, France and Britain did most to ensure Germany shouldered the blame and was punished.

Did Germany start the first world war? ›

Austria-Hungary, with German encouragement, declared war on Serbia on 28 July. Russia's support of Serbia brought France into the conflict. Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August and France on 3 August.

Is anyone still alive from ww1? ›

The last combat veteran was Claude Choules, who served in the British Royal Navy (and later the Royal Australian Navy) and died 5 May 2011, aged 110. The last veteran who served in the trenches was Harry Patch (British Army), who died on 25 July 2009, aged 111.

Who was the oldest soldier in ww1? ›

The oldest soldier to enlist in WWI is quartermaster sergeant Robert Frederick Robertson (UK, b. 12 September 1842), who was 71 years of age when he enlisted in late 1914.

Who took the last shot in ww1? ›

Henry Gunther
Henry Nicholas John Gunther
DiedNovember 11, 1918 (aged 23) Chaumont-devant-Damvillers, Meuse, France
BuriedMost Holy Redeemer Cemetery, Baltimore
AllegianceUnited States
Service/branchU.S. Army
8 more rows

What did Ezra Pound believe? ›

Pound's aspirations for literature were grand. He believed that bad writing destroyed civilizations and that good writing could save them, and although he was an élitist about what counted as art and who mattered as an artist, he thought that literature could enhance the appreciation of life for everyone.

What is a Ezra Pound couplets? ›

An Ezra Pound couplet consists of two rhymed lines of verse approximately the same length.

What does a pact by Ezra Pound mean? ›

'A Pact' by Ezra Pound calls a poetic truce between himself and the huge influence of Walt Whitman. Comparing his predecessor to a 'pig-headed father,' Pound defends his right to write poetry in his own way - even in a form of poetry with no regular meter or line length, known as free verse, which Whitman pioneered.

How did Ezra Pound contribute to modernism? ›

Pound's contributions to modernism are varied, from his early advocacy of the publication of Joyce's prose to his extensive editing and paring of Eliot's The Waste Land to his own manifestos and aesthetic pronouncements.

Who was Ezra Pound influenced by? ›

Ezra Pound

What does shorting the Pound mean? ›

Shorting (or 'selling') the pound means taking a position that will earn you a profit if the value of the pound goes down in relation to other currencies. Selling is the opposite of going long (buying), which means taking a position that makes profit if the pound's market price increases.

Who has ever refused a Nobel Prize? ›

The 59-year-old author Jean-Paul Sartre declined the Nobel Prize in Literature, which he was awarded in October 1964. He said he always refused official distinctions and did not want to be “institutionalised”.

Who is the most controversial Nobel Prize winner? ›

  • Similarly, Obama's award of 2009 faced a wave of criticism. ...
  • Other controversial winners include an award given in 1994 to Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Peres for their work on the Oslo Peace Accords.
6 Oct 2022

Who has won the most Nobel Prizes ever? ›

The Curie family has received the most prizes, with four prizes awarded to five individual laureates. Marie Curie received the prizes in Physics (in 1903) and Chemistry (in 1911).

How did Ezra Pound contribute to Modernism? ›

Pound's contributions to modernism are varied, from his early advocacy of the publication of Joyce's prose to his extensive editing and paring of Eliot's The Waste Land to his own manifestos and aesthetic pronouncements.

How did Ezra Pound influence Eliot? ›

A benefit of Pound's theoretically divisive Imagist movement was that it prepared literary society to welcome the work of later modernist poets such as Eliot, who regularly used Imagist techniques such as concise composition, parataxis and musical rhythms to make his poetry, specifically 'The Waste Land' (1922), ...

What type of poetry is Ezra Pound known for? ›

Ezra Weston Loomis Pound (30 October 1885 – 1 November 1972) was an expatriate American poet and critic, a major figure in the early modernist poetry movement, and a fascist collaborator in Italy during World War II.

Who is the founder of modernism? ›

In the visual arts the roots of Modernism are often traced back to painter Édouard Manet, who, beginning in the 1860s, not only depicted scenes of modern life but also broke with tradition when he made no attempt to mimic the real world by way of perspective and modeling.

Did Ezra Pound write The Waste Land? ›

T S Eliot's The Waste Land made its first appearance in print in October of 1922 in the first number of The Criterion, a quarterly literary journal founded and edited by Eliot himself.
...
Ezra Pound and the drafts of The Waste Land.
Article written by:Mark Ford
Published:13 Dec 2016
13 Dec 2016

What influenced the Love Song of J Alfred Prufrock? ›

The poem's structure was heavily influenced by Eliot's extensive reading of Dante Alighieri and makes several references to the Bible and other literary works—including William Shakespeare's plays Henry IV Part II, Twelfth Night, and Hamlet, the poetry of seventeenth-century metaphysical poet Andrew Marvell, and the ...

What is Ezra Pound trying to say in In a Station of the Metro? ›

The poem is Pound's written equivalent for the moment of revelation and intense emotion he felt at the Paris Metro's Concorde station. The poem is essentially a set of images that have unexpected likeness and convey the rare emotion that Pound was experiencing at that time.

How is the waste land modernism? ›

The Waste Land is also characteristic of modernist poetry in that it contains both lyric and epic elements. Modernism continued the tendency, begun in romanticism, to prize lyric highly, but many modernist poets also sought to write in the traditionally highest form, epic.

What is an image according to Ezra Pound? ›

The essay begins with the three principles of imagism, including “Direct treatment of the 'thing'.” Pound defines “image” as “an intellectual and emotional complex in an instant of time.” He elaborates on the “rules” of imagism, advising precision, and proclaiming, among other things, “Use either no ornament or good ...

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