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May 23, 2023 byJahanzaib Aslam


Prayer, or Salat, is a cornerstone of Islam, acting as the second of the Five Pillars of Islam. A physical, mental, and spiritual act of worship, Salat is observed five times a day by Muslims worldwide. The structure of the prayer, including the words and actions involved, is called a Rak'a.

This guide explains the profound practice of Salat, offering insights into its preparation, structure, and the spiritual benefits it brings.

Understanding the Concept of Salat

Salat is a pillar of Islam, uniting Muslims globally in faith and practice. Derived from the Arabic word 'Silat', which means connection, Salat symbolizes the believer's communion with Allah. It's a time when a Muslim stands before Allah, recites verses from the Quran and makes supplications.

This practice was established by the Prophet Muhammad, following his ascension to heaven (Isra and Mi'raj) during which he met previous prophets and Allah gave the command of the five daily prayers.

Salat is performed in Arabic, the language of the Quran, and faces the Kaaba in Mecca, a direction known as the Qibla.

Preparing for Salat

Before performing Salat, Muslims engage in a ritual purification process called Wudu, or ablution, as cleanliness is an essential aspect of Islam. This process involves washing the hands, mouth, nostrils, arms, head, and feet with water. If water isn't available, a symbolic washing with clean soil, known as Tayammum, can be performed.

A Muslim must be in a state of physical and spiritual cleanliness before praying. This includes being free from any physical impurities and minor or major ritual impurities, such as postpartum bleeding, menstruation, sexual intercourse, or nocturnal emission. A shower (Ghusl) is required in the case of major impurities.

It's also important to ensure the place of prayer is clean, preferably a quiet and tranquil spot where one won't be disturbed. The use of a prayer rug is common. Wearing clean and modest clothing is also required, with specific guidelines for men and women.

For example, men should cover from the navel to the knee at minimum, and women typically cover everything except their face, hands, and feet.

The Structure of Salat

Salat is composed of units known as Rak'a. Each Rak'a comprises a sequence of actions and recitations. The following is the basic structure of a Rak'a:

  1. Stand facing the Qibla, with your feet shoulder-width apart. Raise your hands to your ears and say "Allahu Akbar" (Allah is the Greatest). This is Takbir.

  2. Place your right hand over your left on your chest. This is the Qiyam.

  3. Recite Surah Al-Fatiha, followed by another Surah or verses from the Quran.

  4. Perform Ruku by bending at the waist, keeping your back straight, and saying, "Subhana Rabbiyal 'Azim" (Glory be to my Lord the Great).

  5. Stand up straight and say, "Sami' Allahu liman hamidah" (Allah hears those who praise Him).

  6. Perform the first Sujud by prostrating on the ground, with your forehead, nose, both hands, knees, and toes touching the ground. Say, "Subhana Rabbiyal 'Ala" (Glory be to my Lord, the Highest).

  7. Sit up from your prostration, and then perform a second Sujud.

  8. Repeat steps 3-7 for the second Rak'a.

  9. After the second Sujud of the second Rak'a, sit and recite the Tashahhud and Salawat.

  10. End the prayer with Tasleem, by turning your face to the right and then left, saying "As-salamu alaykum" (Peace be upon you) each time.

The number of Rak'as varies between the five daily prayers: Fajr (dawn prayer) has two Rak'as, Zuhr (noon prayer) and Asr (afternoon prayer) have four each, Maghrib (sunset prayer) has three, and Isha (night prayer) has four.

The Five Daily Prayers

There are five daily obligatory prayers in Islam:

  1. Fajr: The pre-dawn prayer, consisting of two Rak'as.

  2. Zuhr: The midday prayer, consisting of four Rak'as.

  3. Asr: The afternoon prayer, consisting of four Rak'as.

  4. Maghrib: The sunset prayer, consisting of three Rak'as.

  5. Isha: The night prayer, consisting of four Rak'as.

These prayers serve as constant reminders of our relationship with Allah, helping to guide actions throughout the day.

Special Prayers

Apart from the five daily prayers, there are other prayers that can be performed:

  1. Jumu'ah: A congregational prayer performed in place of Zuhr on Fridays.

  2. Eid prayers: Special prayers are performed on the days of Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha.

  3. Taraweeh: Extra prayers performed at night during Ramadan.

  4. Tahajjud: Voluntary night prayers, performed in the last third of the night.

  5. Witr: An odd-numbered prayer performed after Isha and before Fajr.

Duas (Supplications) and Dhikr (Remembrance of Allah)

After the completion of Salat, it is recommended to recite various supplications (Duas) and engage in the remembrance of Allah (Dhikr).

This includes asking for forgiveness, reciting verses of praise, and making personal supplications.

Common Mistakes in Prayer and How to Correct Them

Common mistakes include rushing through the prayer, not performing the actions properly, or not understanding the meaning of what is being recited.

To correct these, it is beneficial to learn the meaning of the recitations, perform the prayer with mindfulness, and ensure each action is performed correctly.

The Benefits of Salat

The benefits of Salat are as follows:

  • Salat purifies the heart and develops the spirit.

  • It strengthens the connection with Allah.

  • It instills discipline and time management.

  • It helps to forgive and seek forgiveness.

  • It provides comfort and relief from stress.

Recommended Books on Salat

To further deepen your understanding of Salat, several authoritative and comprehensive books can be a valuable resource. They offer in-depth insights and guidance on performing Salat correctly and understanding its profound significance.

"Prayer According to the Sunnah" by Prof. Muhammad Zulfiqar: This book provides a detailed and comprehensive guide to prayer according to the teachings and practices of the Prophet Muhammad. It covers every aspect of Salat, including preparation, performance, and the spiritual dimensions of prayer.

"A Guide to Salat (Prayer) in Islam" by M.A. Saqib: This guide offers a simple and straightforward explanation of the steps involved in Salat. It is highly recommended for beginners who are learning to pray.

"How to Pray in Islam?" by Sheikh Juma Ahmad: This book serves as a practical guide for Muslims who want to understand and perfect their Salat. It provides clear instructions, accompanied by images and explanations of the spiritual meanings behind the actions.

"Fiqh us-Sunnah" by As-Sayyid Sabiq: This comprehensive work covers all aspects of Islamic jurisprudence, including a detailed section on Salat. It explains the rules and regulations of Salat according to different Islamic schools of thought.

These books provide a comprehensive understanding of Salat, from its physical performance to its spiritual implications. They are excellent resources for both new learners and those who wish to deepen their knowledge of this essential act of worship.

Also Read: What to Say When Someone Dies in Islam?


Q. How do I perform ablution (Wudu) for prayer?

Wudu involves washing the hands, mouth, nostrils, arms, head, and feet with water. If water isn't available, Tayammum can be performed.

Q. What is the correct position for Sujood (prostration)?

In Sujood, your forehead, nose, both hands, knees, and toes should touch the ground.

Q. What are the steps of a prayer unit (Rak'ah) in Salat?

A Rak'a includes standing and reciting Surah Al-Fatiha and another Surah, performing Ruku, standing, performing two Sujuds with a sitting in between, and standing up again.

Q. What is the Qibla and how do I find it?

The Qibla is the direction toward the Kaaba in Mecca. Muslims worldwide face this direction during prayer. It can be found using a compass or a smartphone app.

Q. Can I pray in a language other than Arabic?

While the prescribed prayers are in Arabic, personal supplications can be made in any language.

Q. How do I make up for missed prayers?

Missed prayers should be made up as soon as possible. They are performed in the same manner as the original prayer.

Q. Are there different prayers for men and women?

The basic structure of the prayer is the same for both men and women. However, there are minor differences in terms of clothing and privacy requirements.

Prayer in Islam is a beautiful act of submission and worship. May this guide help you better understand and perform your prayers? As Allah says in the Quran: "Verily, in the remembrance of Allah do hearts find rest." (13:28)


In conclusion, prayer, or Salat, is a central pillar of Islam, a profound spiritual practice that connects Muslims to Allah. It's a daily commitment, a reminder of faith, and a source of comfort. Understanding and performing Salat correctly enhances this connection and deepens a Muslim's faith.

This guide serves as an introduction to prayer in Islam, offering a step-by-step approach to preparation, execution, and understanding the profound significance of this sacred act.

Useful Resources

Here are some trustworthy online resources that can further deepen your understanding of Salat. They provide reliable and detailed information about various aspects of prayer in Islam.

  1. The Prophet's Prayer Described: This webpage offers a comprehensive guide on how Prophet Muhammad performed Salat, as per the Hadiths.

  2. IslamicFinder: This website offers a global prayer timetable, Qibla direction, and an extensive knowledge library on Islamic practices.

  3. Salaat: Prayer in Islam (Zakir Naik) - YouTube: Dr. Zakir Naik explains the importance of Salat and how to perform it correctly in this informative video.

  4. Wudu (Ablution) - My Religion Islam: This webpage provides step-by-step instructions on performing Wudu, an essential prerequisite for Salat.

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