$1B feud involving Leonardo's 'Salvator Mundi' reveals dark side of the art world (2023)

Written by Nina dos Santos, CNN

Contributors Lauren Kent, CNN

It is the biggest legal fight the art world has ever witnessed: a Russian oligarch, who claims he was ripped off buying multi-million-dollar masterpieces, versus a Swiss art dealer who says it was just business.

Now, after six years of lawsuits in multiple jurisdictions, the tables appear to be turning once more in a saga so dramatic it's been given a name worthy of a movie script: "The Bouvier Affair."

Russian fertilizer tycoon Dmitry Rybolovlev has pursued Swiss art dealer and freeport storage magnate Yves Bouvier around the world for years in various courts, claiming to have been swindled out of $1 billion on 38 exorbitantly priced artworks sold to him by Bouvier over the course of a decade.

But in a new twist, Bouvier has told CNN he is preparing his own billion-dollar damage counter suit against Rybolovlev, after taking legal action in Singapore in February, alleging a long-running court battle with Rybolovlev has ruined his businesses and reputation.

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The cases so far have kept an army of lawyers and reputation managers employed on either side, as one allegation against another is levied by each party, including claims of intimidation and political intrigue.

Fittingly, the tortuous imbroglio also involves some of the most priceless and controversial pieces of art, including the 2013 purchase of what is now the world's most expensive and enigmatic painting: the "Salvator Mundi," thought by some to be the work of Leonardo da Vinci despite years of debate over its authenticity -- a work on which Bouvier made a markup of more than 50%.

$1B feud involving Leonardo's 'Salvator Mundi' reveals dark side of the art world (2)

The "Salvator Mundi" on display at a press preview at Christie's in New York in 2017.

Credit: Dennis Van Tine/Sipa USA/AP

Long believed by others to be a copy or the work of Leonardo's studio, the "Salvator Mundi" was purchased in 2005 by a consortium of speculative art dealers for under $10,000. Eight years later, after the painting had been restored and declared the work of the Renaissance master, Bouvier bought it for $80 million after enlisting the help of a poker player to beat down the price. The dealer swiftly sold it on for $127.5 million to his then-client, Rybolovlev, via the pair's offshore vehicles, according to an invoice referred to in court papers, and taking a 1% commission. And while the oligarch later auctioned off the painting for an astonishing $450 million in 2017, to a secret buyer now widely believed to be Saudi Arabia's Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman, he nonetheless alleges that Bouvier defrauded him -- a claim Bouvier denies.

Rybolovlev declined to be interviewed for this story, but a spokesperson for Dmitry Rybolovlev's family entities told CNN: "These matters are being fought in the courts where we expect to prove what happened and that Bouvier's fanciful story is false. For now, what is most notable is what Bouvier does not dispute: as an art adviser, he pretended to help his clients assemble an art collection at a cost of $2 billion while secretly reaping half of that price for himself."

Yet Bouvier does dispute he was ever an "art adviser," a matter that has at been at the heart of the litigation and allegations by Rybolovlev of breach of trust.

"I am an art dealer," he told CNN. "The contracts prepared by Rybolovlev's lawyers and all my invoices explicitly described me as 'the seller.'

(Video) $1B feud involving Leonardo's 'Salvator Mundi' reveals dark side of the art world - CNN News

"Rybolovlev has never managed to convince a single judge or prosecutor otherwise, in any jurisdiction, for the very simple reason that his allegations do not match the reality of our contractual relations."

The saga of the legal battle encompasses many of the problems regulators have identified with the soaring global art market -- art, in the wrong hands, has become yet another commodity to move money with little accountability.

Related video: Why is art so expensive?

The "Salvator Mundi," meanwhile, hasn't been seen since the record-breaking sale. But it has been back in the headlines after a French documentary claimed in April that the painting had been at the center of a diplomatic spat between Paris and Riyadh, amid doubts over its authenticity and a request by the kingdom that it be shown in the Louvre.

The $450 million question: Where is Leonardo da Vinci's 'Salvator Mundi'?

CNN reached out to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for comment but is yet to receive a response.

In the documentary, "The Savior for Sale," an anonymous high-ranking French official claims that Prince bin Salman was adamant that the "Salvator Mundi" be displayed next to the "Mona Lisa" in order to solidify its place as an authentic Leonardo -- despite ongoing questions about whether the work is entirely by the Italian master.

The French government ultimately decided not to exhibit the painting under the Saudis' conditions, which the anonymous official says in the film "would be akin to laundering a piece that cost $450 million." Even with the painting out of the public eye, art historians and experts have continued to debate whether the "Salvator Mundi" is an autograph Leonardo or whether he merely contributed to a painting that was predominantly executed by his workshop. The difference could affect its value by hundreds of millions of dollars, given that there are fewer than 20 authenticated Leonardo paintings in the world.

A true Leonardo?

It seems that even those seeking to profit from the painting had doubts about its authenticity.

Emails shared with CNN by Bouvier appear to show communication between Bouvier and a representative of Rybolovlev in which the dealer advised his client in 2013 that the work was a thing of beauty but not a good investment. It was so heavily restored, the dealer wrote, that experts doubted the work was entirely completed by Leonardo himself, and neither the Vatican nor any major world museum had expressed interest in acquiring it.

$1B feud involving Leonardo's 'Salvator Mundi' reveals dark side of the art world (4)

Christie's employees take bids for Leonardo da Vincis "Salvator Mundi" at the Christie's auction in New York in November 2017.

Credit: Timothy A. Clary/AFP/Getty Images

"The hands are the best-preserved bits," reads Bouvier's email, dated March 22, 2013, while "the rest of it has largely been restored."

In another email, Bouvier writes that any "buyer who acquires this painting that no one wants at too high a price will be seen as a 'pigeon' and become the laughing stock of the market and will lose credibility," given the "very low original proportion that appears to have been painted by the hand of Leonardo himself."

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Bouvier nonetheless arranged to borrow the "Salvator Mundi" (with a $63 million deposit, he said) from Sotheby's. He claims he then arranged for it to be delivered to the Russian's penthouse in Manhattan in a "black document holder."

Antoine Vitkine, the filmmaker who spent two years producing the recent documentary, told CNN he was taken aback to learn that Bouvier, who began his career as an art world outsider, was among those to cast doubt on the painting's credentials given that more prominent experts have authenticated the "Salvator Mundi."

"That's extraordinary," Vitkine said, adding that he thinks some prominent art historians who have risked their reputation on the "Salvator Mundi" were more lax than they would normally be when it comes to weighing in on a rediscovered painting.

Among those to throw their weight behind the attribution to Leonardo was the UK's National Gallery, which exhibited the "Salvator Mundi" in 2011 and catapulted it into the global spotlight. The painting's unveiling was, at the time, widely covered by the press, including CNN.

"You have to remember, so many people have a stake in this work," Vitkine said.s

$1B feud involving Leonardo's 'Salvator Mundi' reveals dark side of the art world (6)

A view from outside of the Leonardo da Vinci exhibit at the National Gallery in 2011 in London

Credit: George Rose/Getty Images

A bitter back and forth

Bouvier has always denied the charges of fraud leveled against him by Rybolovlev, who has seen his own share of tabloid controversy, including a headline-grabbing divorce and the purchase of an eye-wateringly expensive property from Donald Trump years before the former president took office.

The Russian oligarch, who is president and co-owner of AS Monaco Football Club, is fighting charges in relation to a bribery scandal of Monegasque officials in connection with the Bouvier litigation, in a case dubbed "Monacogate" by the French-language press.

Lawyers for Rybolovlev said in a statement "As far as these allegations are concerned, Dmitriy Rybolovlev remains presumed innocent. He is completely confident about the outcome of this case, in which, after more than three and a half years of investigation, no convincing evidence against him could be found."

$1B feud involving Leonardo's 'Salvator Mundi' reveals dark side of the art world (7)

Yves Bouvier

Credit: Ore Huiying/Bloomberg/Getty Images

In the last six years, Bouvier has fended off legal action in Monaco, Singapore and Hong Kong. A $380 million suit, launched by Rybolovlev against Sotheby's for allegedly helping Bouvier inflate his prices is still ongoing in New York. That litigation sprang back into the public domain on May 7, when Rybolovlev's legal team amended their complaint for the first time in two years to include the sale of a Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec painting on behalf of Rybolovlev by Sotheby's via Bouvier, claiming it was hard to recoup the price paid on the work because of its inflated value. Rybolovlev also claimed in the amended complaint he was not paid the $9.5 million the auction house owed him over the sale. Sotheby's is contesting the claim.

The onslaught of litigation has, according to Bouvier, turned his life upside down. "I used to be an entrepreneur, someone with many businesses and a family firm built up over 50 years," he told CNN.

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"Since all this started, all I've done is spent my time defending myself in court and my reputation in the press," said Bouvier, who admits he made $40 million by flipping the "Salvator Mundi" in two days.

Text messages presented in the French documentary -- not independently confirmed by CNN -- appear to show Bouvier claiming to Rybolovlev's aides that he couldn't secure him a better price than the amount the Russian eventually paid.

"That's a very good deal for my company. I'm not going to complain," said Bouvier when asked about the large difference.

"You have to understand what this was like," said Bouvier. "I was blacklisted by the auction houses, the banks wouldn't extend credit (to me, and) I had to start selling off assets to keep my staff and my businesses."

$1B feud involving Leonardo's 'Salvator Mundi' reveals dark side of the art world (8)

Dmitry Rybolovlev

Credit: Patrick Kovarik/AFP/Getty Images

Bouvier claims he has been spied upon and followed by various individuals he does not know. Via a representative of his own he shared with CNN an 81-page private investigation he appears to have shared with prosecutors in Geneva, codenamed "Buldog" which he had commissioned from a Swiss security firm named 4CTM. Beyond concluding he had been tailed by a group of men the firm believed to be British as part of a "very big budget operation," the report was not able to further identify the people allegedly tailing Bouvier. Asked by CNN about the alleged surveillance, Rybolovlev's representative had no comment.

CNN reached out to 4CTM security for comment on their report but is yet to receive a response.

Exploiting the art world's opacity

To author and filmmaker Ben Lewis, whose 2019 book "The Last Leonardo" details the drama surrounding the "Salvator Mundi," the public fight between Bouvier and Rybolovlev lifts the veil on the art market's ugly side.

"The Bouvier Affair is a classic example of what can go wrong in the secretive, opaque, and -- in inverted commas -- discreet art market," said Lewis during an interview with CNN in London, who notes that parts of the art world have developed a rocky reputation for its way of doing business.

"Opacity, lack of transparency, greed, tax evasion, money laundering, art historical dishonesty, dissembling, disingenuousness, corruption. I mean, where does it end?"

But the secrecy, hefty markups, and legal contention involved in the "Salvator Mundi" scandal are not representative of the vast majority of art transactions, says art collector and expert Kenny Schachter.

"The fact that people always say the art world is so unregulated and has a dark side is a bit of an exaggeration," said Schachter, in a phone interview with CNN, adding that art isn't any more corrupt than other industries involving multi-million-dollar deals, such as real estate, jewelry, and banking. "No matter what it is, when there is a lot of money, there is going to be bad actions."

But when it comes to secrecy that does exist in certain facets of the art world, Bouvier is not only a conduit for valuable artworks -- he has built a career on helping the rich keep valuable works hidden from view. As well as having been a major investor in the Geneva freeport, a huge, high-security storage facility where collectors and galleries hold artworks in tax-efficient warehouses, the Swiss dealer has helped establish new freeports in Luxembourg and Singapore.

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Bouvier told CNN that Russia also expressed interest in having its own tax-exempt freeport.

In 2016, a year into his legal woes, Bouvier said he was approached by Yury Trutnev, Russia's deputy prime minister and a personal friend of Rybolovlev, with a proposal to help build one in Vladivostok, at the behest of President Vladimir Putin. A photograph, shared with CNN by Bouvier, appears to show Bouvier and Trutnev meeting in Singapore. The Swiss dealer also shared various emails, which CNN was unable to independently verify, seemingly showing Russian officials inviting him to join the project.

The Russian freeport ultimately never went ahead. But Bouvier claims that he asked Russia's deputy prime minister to intervene in his dispute with Rybolovlev in return for his help on the project.

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"I did mention (to Trutnev), 'I have some legal issues with one of your fellow citizens,'" Bouvier said. "He told me, 'I'll take care of it.' That was when I understood: The message was 'If you help me sort this problem out, I'll make yours go away.'"

CNN reached out to the Russian government and Trutnev's office for comment but is yet to receive a response.

"I might do business with Russia in the future -- why not? It's a country of great culture but I'd never do business with an oligarch again," Bouvier said.

Russia's Kremlin-connected elite is already under scrutiny over its art holdings: A report published by the US Senate's Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations in 2020 claimed companies linked to two other Russian oligarchs with close ties to the Kremlin had exploited the art world's opacity to evade sanctions.

The findings prompted Senators to call for greater transparency in the fine art sector.

"It is shocking that US banking regulations don't currently apply to multimillion-dollar art transactions, and we cannot let that continue," Ohio Senator Rob Portman, the committee's chairman, said in a statement at the time.

Related video: How do art auctions really work?

Art masterpieces often pack high dollar value into a small, portable canvas, Lewis says. "Fifty million bucks in a suitcase, right? And who's to say how much it's really worth?"

The European Union and UK have also bolstered regulations on art sales with anti-money laundering legislation adopted in 2020. Those regulations require auctions houses and art dealers to do due diligence on new customers for any transaction that exceeds about $12,000.

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"There's been a steady increase in compliance regulations," Schachter said. "It's a big misperception for people to think that the art world is just this cesspool... maybe it was more like that in the past, but there's definitely been a clamping down."

Schachter also notes that storing art in freeports is relatively common and usually done for legitimate reasons, such as not having enough wall space for a vast art collection.

"A real collector is someone who is not really hindered by the lack of space to hang something or the lack of money to buy something because collectors just have to have it and they'll always figure out a way -- sometimes illicitly, but mostly not," he said. "I don't think everyone in the art world are angels, but I don't think that (freeports) are purpose-built for evasion or money laundering."

Still MIA

Against the backdrop of legal wrangling, there is one question on the lips of everyone in the art world: Where is the "Salvator Mundi"?

Bouvier doubts recent reports that it's on Prince bin Salman's yacht, as was alleged in 2019.

The $450 million question: Where is Leonardo da Vinci's 'Salvator Mundi'?

"To put a painting like this on a yacht, with the sea air and the evaporation would be utterly stupid. I cannot believe the buyer would put this painting in a setting like that," Bouvier said.

"It is on a wood board, which can warp in no time," he said, referring to the walnut panel on which the artwork was painted.

Vitkine speculates that "it might be that we see it one day in the Louvre Abu Dhabi. Who knows?"

Meanwhile, Lewis thinks it could be in a palace in Saudi Arabia, ready to be unveiled -- perhaps before the end of this year -- as part of the kingdom's drive to brand itself as a hub for arts and culture. "The important thing about the art market is that behind the most beautiful objects often lie the ugliest of motives," he said. "'Salvator Mundi' means 'Savior of the world.' And in a way, the painting is now not so much Savior of the world, as the Savior of Saudi Arabia."

(Video) The Global Art Market: Money Laundering, Kleptocracy, Tax Dodging, and Organized Crime."

Meanwhile, with the legal wrangling between the painting's former owners resurfacing once more, this valuable masterpiece and others once in the same collection, continue to test many a reputation.


What is controversial about Salvator Mundi? ›

The attribution continues to be a subject of debate among scholars and critics. Those who question the painting's attribution to Leonardo not only consider the depiction of Jesus as having feeble features, but they also describe the head-on composition as stiff and unlike Leonardo's characteristic twisting poses.

What is so special about Salvator Mundi painting? ›

It became the most expensive work of art ever sold when it was auctioned at Christie's, New York, on November 15, 2017, for $450.3 million. The unprecedented sum for a heavily restored painting with questionable attribution made the Salvator Mundi, arguably, the most controversial painting of the 21st century.

How much is Salvator Mundi worth now? ›

Worth $450.3 million, Salvator Mundi is not only famous for its jaw-dropping price but also for the controversy that surrounds it. The battle between art historians over whether Da Vinci painted this piece is still underway. But what is the painting about and where is it? And did Da Vinci not paint it?

Who got the money for Salvator Mundi? ›

In May 2013, the Swiss dealer Yves Bouvier purchased the painting for just over US$75 million in a private sale brokered by Sotheby's, New York. The painting was then sold to the Russian collector Dmitry Rybolovlev for US$127.5 million.

What was the problem with Leonardo da Vinci? ›

Da Vinci's difficulties with sticking to tasks were pervasive from childhood. LONDON: Italian polymath Leonardo da Vinci may have struggled to complete some of his iconic art works because he suffered from Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), scientists claim.

Why is The Da Vinci Code controversial? ›

Published in 2003 and banned in Lebanon in 2004 for its offensiveness toward Christianity, the Da Vinci Code is highly frowned upon by Catholic leaders. Many other countries have banned the novel for certain periods due to the blasphemous content.

What makes Salvator Mundi so expensive? ›

This could be attributed to specific reasons, mainly it depicting Christ in the Renaissance theme and also it probably being the last work by Leonardo. Also, there are only less than twenty paintings of da Vinci known, and this particular being the only one that remained in someone's possession.

Is the Salvator Mundi still missing? ›

Most art world observers thought the Salvator Mundi would be the centrepiece of a new museum or art centre in the region, but the painting has not been glimpsed in public since.

What is the most expensive art ever sold? ›

The distinction of most expensive painting ever sold belongs to Salvator Mundi by Leonardo da Vinci, according to Portrait Flip. Saudi prince Badr bin Abdullah Al Saud bid a record-breaking $450.5 million on the 16th-century masterpiece at a Christie's auction in New York in 2016.

Who owns the most valuable painting in the world? ›

Salvator Mundi: Saudi-owned $450m painting is not a Da Vinci, museum says. The world's most expensive painting, owned by Saudi Arabia, is not the work of Leonardo Da Vinci, according to a research project at Madrid's renowned Prado museum.

How much would Mona Lisa sell for? ›

The Mona Lisa is priceless. Any speculative price (some say over a billion dollars!) would probably be so high that not one person would be able or willing to purchase and maintain the painting. Moreover, the Louvre Museum would probably never sell it.

Has the Mona Lisa ever been stolen? ›

Vincenzo Peruggia (8 October 1881 – 8 October 1925) was an Italian museum worker, artist, and thief, most famous for stealing the Mona Lisa from the Louvre museum in Paris on 21 August 1911. A police photograph of Vincenzo Peruggia in 1909, two years before the theft.

Who owns the Mona Lisa? ›

It had been believed to have been painted between 1503 and 1506; however, Leonardo may have continued working on it as late as 1517. It was acquired by King Francis I of France and is now the property of the French Republic. It has been on permanent display at the Louvre in Paris since 1797.

How much did the lost Leonardo sell for? ›

$450 million

Who is the Russian owner of Salvator Mundi? ›

Art dealer Yves Bouvier buys the "Salvator Mundi" for $80 million and swiftly sells it on to Russian oligarch Dmitry Rybolovlev for $127.5 million.

Is Leonardo da Vinci have ADHD? ›

Researchers from King's College London and the University of Pavia in Italy consulted historical evidence, including accounts from Leonardo's contemporaries, and concluded that his issues with time management, concentration and procrastination could be attributed to ADHD.

What is Leonardo da Vinci weakness? ›

Italians are set to mark the 500th anniversary of Leonardo da Vinci's death on Thursday. Many researchers have assumed that this palsy of his right hand was a weakness on one side of the body, known as right hemiparesis, probably caused by a stroke.

Why did Leonardo da Vinci fail? ›

New research claims that the Italian genius wasn't able to finish many projects because of an attention disorder. Leonardo da Vinci produced some of the world's most recognisable art, like the Mona Lisa, arguably the world's most famous painting. But, like other masterpieces, it's considered unfinished.

Is The Da Vinci Code against Christianity? ›

The Da Vinci Code, a popular suspense novel by Dan Brown, generated criticism and controversy after its publication in 2003. Many of the complaints centered on the book's speculations and misrepresentations of core aspects of Christianity and the history of the Catholic Church.

How do Christians feel about The Da Vinci Code? ›

There's been a growing wave of religious controversy since Dan Brown's novel was first released in 2003. Many Christians were deeply offended by the story's portrayal of Jesus, Christian doctrine and church history.

What Christians say about The Da Vinci Code? ›

Among ''The Da Vinci Code'' critics are evangelical Protestants and Roman Catholics who regard the novel, which is laced with passages celebrating feminism, anticlericalism and pagan forms of worship, as another infiltration by liberal cultural warriors.

What is the most expensive van Gogh? ›

Portrait of Dr Paul Gachet still holds the record for the most expensive Van Gogh, although it sold as long ago as 1990. At Christie's it fetched $83m, then the highest auction price for a work by any artist. With inflation, it would be equivalent to $180m today.

Who owned Salvator Mundi before it was sold? ›

Russian oligarch Dmitry Rybolovlev, who owned the painting before putting it up for sale in 2017, has alleged Swiss art dealer Yves Bouvier charged him inflated prices on dozens of works he acquired for more than $2.1 billion.

Who is da Vinci's Jesus? ›

An Italian scholar claims to have discovered a new drawing of Jesus Christ by Leonardo da Vinci that confirms doubts that the Renaissance master painted Salvator Mundi, the world's most expensive work of art.

What painting has been stolen the most? ›

Throughout six centuries, the Ghent Altarpiece, also called “The Adoration of the Mystic Lamb,” has been burned, forged, and raided in three different wars. It is, in fact, the world's most stolen artwork— and is considered one of the most influential paintings ever made.

Where is the Salvator Mundi now 2022? ›

“[Salvator Mundi] is in Saudi Arabia and the country is constructing an art gallery, which is to be finished in 2024, I think,” art historian and noted Leonardo scholar Martin Kemp said at last week's Cheltenham Literary Festival in the U.K., as reported by the Art Newspaper.

What is the rarest painting of all time? ›

The most valuable painting in history must surely be the Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci. Although it is considered priceless, we can determine some numerical value by looking at the insurance value of the painting. In 1962 the masterpiece was assessed at a value of $100 million.

Is art more valuable than gold? ›

To conclude, the art market is one of the biggest markets in the world. If you think about it, artworks are the most expensive objects in the world. They are more expensive than gold, cars, diamonds, and so on.

What is the most expensive paint color? ›

Google "the most expensive pigment" and you'll find that Lapis Lazuli is believed to be the most expensive pigment ever created. It was pricier than its weight in gold.

Who is the No 1 painter in the world now? ›

Gerhard Richter is at the very top of our list—the most famous living painter today.

Who is the most loved painter? ›

Leonardo da Vinci, probably the most important Renaissance artist, is widely recognized as the most famous artist of all time. He's the genius behind the iconic Mona Lisa painting masterpiece, after all.

Who can tell me if a painting is valuable? ›

Consider finding an appraiser to determine the value of your artwork. Appraisers are trained specialists who work for a fee. They evaluate your piece and give you a written statement of its value.

How much was the Mona Lisa worth when it was stolen? ›

In 1911, the Mona Lisa was not yet instantly recognizable. In fact, when The Washington Post first reported the theft and appraised the painting's value at $5 million, the paper mistakenly ran a picture of the Monna Vanna, a nude charcoal sketch that some believe da Vinci made in preparation to paint the Mona Lisa.

How much is Mona Lisa insured for? ›

In 1962, the Mona Lisa was insured for $100 million, holding the Guinness World Record for highest ever insurance value in the art market (corresponding to $870 million in 2021).

Can the Mona Lisa be bought? ›

Truly priceless, the painting cannot be bought or sold according to French heritage law. As part of the Louvre collection, "Mona Lisa" belongs to the public, and by popular agreement, their hearts belong to her.

What was found under the Mona Lisa? ›

A new study on the Mona Lisa has revealed evidence of a charcoal underdrawing, suggesting for the first time that Leonardo da Vinci used a preparatory sketch to create the famous portrait.

Why did Guy throw cake at Mona Lisa? ›

Let them eat cake! A man disguising himself in a wig while sitting in a wheelchair threw a piece of cake at the famed Mona Lisa painting in the Louvre Museum in Paris over the weekend to apparently raise awareness for the environment, The Associated Press reported.

What happened to the person who stole the Mona Lisa? ›

Peruggia, who claimed to have stolen the Mona Lisa to return her to her native Italy, was arrested and eventually sentenced to jail. After Peruggia's arrest, the Mona Lisa was displayed for a week in the Uffizi. The painting was displayed throughout Italy before it was returned to the Louvre in January 1914.

Who painted the most controversial painting Mona Lisa? ›

Leonardo da Vinci began painting the Mona Lisa about 1503, and it was in his studio when he died in 1519. He likely worked on it intermittently over several years, adding multiple layers of thin oil glazes at different times.

Was Van Gogh's art criticized? ›

The work was met with criticism and mockery, including among van Gogh's family and friends, such as painter Anthon van Rappard.

What is controversial about the Mona Lisa? ›

One long-standing mystery of the painting is why Mona Lisa features very faint eyebrows and apparently does not have any eyelashes. In October 2007, Pascal Cotte, a French engineer and inventor, says he discovered with a high-definition camera that Leonardo da Vinci originally did paint eyebrows and eyelashes.

What is a major reason why da Vinci failed to complete many of his paintings? ›

Probably because of his abundance of diverse interests, da Vinci failed to complete a significant number of his paintings and projects. He spent a great deal of time immersing himself in nature, testing scientific laws, dissecting bodies (human and animal) and thinking and writing about his observations.

Who technically owns the Mona Lisa? ›

It was acquired by King Francis I of France and is now the property of the French Republic. It has been on permanent display at the Louvre in Paris since 1797.

How many times has the Mona Lisa been stolen? ›

The Mona Lisa has been stolen once but has been vandalized many times. It was stolen on 21 August 1911 by an Italian Louvre employee who was driven to act by his Italian patriotism.

Why does Mona Lisa not smile? ›

It is believed, however, that the Mona Lisa does not smile; she wears an expression common to people who have lost their front teeth. A closeup of the lip area shows a scar that is not unlike that left by the application of blunt force.

What are the most controversial Van Gogh paintings? ›

"The Potato Eaters" is one of the first masterpieces by Van Gogh and without a doubt the artist's biggest "failure," at least according to its critics at the time. It depicts five people sitting in a cramped kitchen having dinner, their faces tired and distorted – bulbous noses, bony gnarled hands.

What are four art criticisms? ›

An Art Critique consists of four categories. Describe, Analyze, Interpret and Judge (or Evaluate).

Who was Van Gogh arguing with? ›

But it was above all quarrels over art that pushed the pair apart, and on 23 December 1888 a violent dispute about painting erupted in which Gauguin argued it was important to work from imagination, while Van Gogh maintained paintings should be based on nature.

What are the hidden messages in Mona Lisa? ›

Behind the right pupil of the unknown woman called Mona Lisa are the letters L, V — Leonardo's initials. Her left pupil is more of a mystery — Vinceti said the letters there are either B, S, or C, E. The art expert also claims to have found the number 72, or possibly L2, under the bridge that appears behind her.

Is there hidden messages in the Mona Lisa? ›

An Italian researcher says the key to solving the enigmas of "Mona Lisa"' lies in her eyes. Silvano Vinceti claims he has found the letter "S" in the woman's left eye, the letter "L" in her right eye, and the number "72" under the arched bridge in the backdrop of Leonardo da Vinci's famous painting.

What is hidden in the Mona Lisa painting? ›

A new study on the Mona Lisa has revealed evidence of a charcoal underdrawing, suggesting for the first time that Leonardo da Vinci used a preparatory sketch to create the famous portrait.

Did da Vinci say art is never finished only abandoned? ›

Can we ever call a work finished? Leonardo Da Vinci said no; rather, we just abandon. We speak with artists who decide when an artwork is complete.

What was the unfinished da Vinci painting when he died? ›

Da Vinci began working on the Mona Lisa in 1503 and continued refining it until fourteen years later in 1517. He paused work on the painting, likely due to arm injuries, but the artwork was never returned because of Da Vinci's premature death in 1519.


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Author: Merrill Bechtelar CPA

Last Updated: 11/27/2022

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Author information

Name: Merrill Bechtelar CPA

Birthday: 1996-05-19

Address: Apt. 114 873 White Lodge, Libbyfurt, CA 93006

Phone: +5983010455207

Job: Legacy Representative

Hobby: Blacksmithing, Urban exploration, Sudoku, Slacklining, Creative writing, Community, Letterboxing

Introduction: My name is Merrill Bechtelar CPA, I am a clean, agreeable, glorious, magnificent, witty, enchanting, comfortable person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.